GERD and probiotics: Does probiotics help?

In order to function optimally, the digestive system needs a system of microorganisms in the intestinal tract called the gut microbiota. Using probiotics, you can introduce live bacteria equivalent to gut microorganisms into your body. Find out how probiotics can help with acid reflux and other GERD symptoms.

A woman taking nouri probiotic

Key takeaways:

  • GERD is a digestive system condition that can occur when acid-containing stomach contents repeatedly flow back into the esophagus.
  • Probiotics can help reduce GERD symptoms by speeding up the emptying of stomach contents into the small intestine. This reduces the chances of stomach contents flowing back into the esophagus.
  • More research needs to be carried out on how probiotics can help manage GERD. Also, while probiotics are generally safe, they may cause some side effects.

When food is consumed, it enters the stomach through a tube called the esophagus, which connects the mouth and stomach. Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. In layman's language, some people refer to this as "acid backwash."

When acid reflux occurs repeatedly and regularly, healthcare professionals diagnose it as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The backflow of gastric acid into the esophagus can cause irritation of its lining. Most people can manage this discomfort with lifestyle changes and medications. And though it's uncommon, some may need surgery to ease symptoms.

Probiotics and antacids are medications that can be used to treat GERD. In this article, we'll explain how and why probiotics can relieve acid reflux and other GERD symptoms.

How probiotics can help treat GERD

Probiotics have been shown to improve gastrointestinal homeostasis and promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms found in the gut. However, probiotic activity in the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as the esophagus, is less clear.

Probiotics have been linked to changes in GERD. According to researchers:

  • While GERD often causes the lower esophageal sphincter muscles to relax, probiotics can interact with stomach mucosal receptors to speed up the emptying of the stomach into the intestines.
  • Since an abnormal increase in bacteria found in the small intestine can affect the movement of food in the gastrointestinal tract, taking probiotics may be beneficial in treating conditions like GERD.

What are probiotics?

Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that exist naturally in the body. The body has both good and bad bacteria.

Good bacteria are beneficial bacteria that are essential for survival. Many of them reside in the gut (the gastrointestinal system). They help our bodies digest food and absorb nutrients, and they produce certain vitamins, such as vitamin K, thiamin, and nicotinic acid, in the intestinal tract.

When a pathogen infects a person, more bad bacteria gain access to their system, throwing it off balance. The good bacteria aid in the elimination of the excess bad bacteria, restoring balance.

Probiotic supplements are synthetic edibles that supplement the body with beneficial bacteria needed in the gut for the proper functioning of the digestive system.

Probiotics have been shown to improve health (), particularly digestive health. They are good bacteria that inhibit the growth of bad bacteria that are harmful to the body.

Which GERD symptoms can probiotics relieve?

A systematic review published in 2020 looked into the effects of probiotics on GERD. The authors examined 13 studies, 11 of which found that probiotics could help with acid reflux. According to the study, the following are GERD symptoms that probiotics may be able to relieve:

  • Reflux and heartburn
  • Shortness of breath
  • Decrease in regurgitation
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, abdominal pain, belching, and intestinal gurgling

Is it safe to take probiotics and antacids together?

Probiotics and antacids both work in your gut. Both medications can help improve digestive system health and can be taken as pills, food, or supplements.

Antacids help relieve acid reflux and heartburn by neutralizing stomach acid. It may be okay to take them simultaneously. But, before you do, ensure you speak with your doctor and also take the medications as instructed.

Probiotics may improve the efficacy of antacids, reducing indigestion symptoms. However, for better improvement, probiotics are best taken alone, without any combination.

Side effects of probiotics

Probiotics are generally safe to take. But, as with any drug or supplement, there is always a chance that there will be side effects. People who are ill or have weakened immune systems may be especially vulnerable.

Some possible side effects of taking probiotics include:

  • Bloating and discomfort 
  • Allergic reactions, which can be severe in rare cases
  • Exposure to microorganisms not listed on the label 
  • Bacterial or fungal infections
  • Harmful interactions with other medications
  • Harm from counterfeit products

How to choose the best probiotic for GERD

When it comes to probiotic supplements, the American Gastroenterological Association recommends the following:

  • Choose probiotics that list the strains of bacteria they contain.
  • Purchase your probiotic supplement from a reputable company.
  • Consult a doctor for advice.
  • Beware of purchasing bogus probiotics online.

Other treatment options for GERD

There are numerous options for treating acid reflux. These options include:

Self-care strategies

Self-care strategies can help relieve mild-to-moderate symptoms. Your doctor may advise limiting spicy, fatty, or acidic foods. Eating more frequent small meals may be better than fewer large meals.

Other mindful practices that may help relieve your symptoms include:

  • Eating a little before bed
  • Elevating the head higher when sleeping
  • Losing some weight if you have a higher body mass index (BMI)
  • Quitting smoking


Doctors commonly prescribe antacids to reduce stomach acid production and alleviate some mild symptoms. When antacids fail to relieve chronic acid reflux, a doctor may prescribe these:

  • H2 blockers, which also aid in the reduction of stomach acid production.
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which have a similar effect as H2 blockers and can heal the esophageal lining.


A doctor may recommend surgery for people with severe GERD who have not responded to other treatments. Some surgical procedures for treating GERD include:

  • Bariatric surgery to aid weight loss
  • Fundoplication. This procedure involves sewing around the top of the stomach to prevent stomach acid from leaking into the esophagus.


There are various medications that doctors commonly prescribe to treat GERD. Some evidence, though, shows that probiotics may also be a good way to treat the condition. If your symptoms worsen and the probiotic medicine isn't helping, you may need to talk to a doctor.


  1. Jing Cheng & Arthur C. Ouwehand (2020). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Probiotics: A Systematic Review
  2. American Gastroenterological Association. (n.d). AGA does not recommend the use of probiotics for most digestive conditions
  3. Fang Yan & D. Brent Polk (2020). Probiotics and Probiotic-Derived Functional Factors—Mechanistic Insights Into Applications for Intestinal Homeostasis
  4. National Health Service UK (2022). Probiotics
  5. International Probiotics Association (2020). Role for probiotics in GERD